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Overall objectives of the Capacity Building

The overall objective of the programme is to increase awareness and operationalized IGAD capacity building initiatives by supporting Member States to achieve closer regional economic integration through the implementation of the agreed agenda, provide technical assistance to IGAD Secretariat, Directorate to ensure the proper and timely implementation of the programme and the efficient use of resources in capacity development.  

The specific objectives of the capacity development with development partners are

Provide a forum for information exchange, coordination and complementarities among partners in the planning, implementation and monitoring of activities; 

  • Ensure effective links with different capacity building programs funded by development partners
  • Establish effective links with other programs and ensure integration of cross cutting issues as appropriate;
  • Ensure that development partners are aware of relevant policy guidelines and technical standards and that response is coherent to the greatest extent possible.
  • Advocate for donors to fund priority activities while concurrently encourage synergies in mobilizes resources for their activities through their usual channels and complement the ongoing programs.

 Addressing Challenges Facing IGAD and Member States

Capacity building interventions to strengthen overall IGAD policy initiatives is important to the building of regional integration and ownership among member states.

In this context, integrating the objectives of policy development capacity building would be well served, if, among other issues, it simplifies the complex overwhelming IGAD agenda.  There are dire needs in these areas, just as much as there are ongoing efforts to address some of them. 

 The central pillars of the capacity building program activities aim at

  • Establishing foundational competencies and community of practice for better understanding and implementation of initiatives within the framework of drought resilience and regional integration; 
  • Strengthening skills and enhancing knowledge in across IGAD Divisions
  • Skills building in cross cutting areas such as data management, monitoring and evaluation, best procurement practices, and communications
  • Creation of a cadre of who could become the core of “IGAD policy management professionals” over the longer term.  

For this reason, the capacity building program propose in this conceptual framework is thus an attmept intended to serve as a platform for exchange of knowledge, experiences and information on regional matters as well as on the coordination of in-country proposals to enhance dialogue and policy impact of IGAD-member states relations. The program will utilize the already available documents and align those documents with the vision, mission and best practices in this endeavor. 

The rationale of the concept note is to support the issues related to capacity outlined in ISAP and Drought Resilience Strategy and response to the emerging new development and institution setup and changing needs to deliver efficient quality of technical work required. In order to achieve the above goals the following three areas need to be address as prerequisites:

  1. The Capacity Expansion Objective
  2. Quality Improvement Objective, and
  3. Efficiency Improvement.

The major focus on this institutional capacity building program is to do deliver activities that meet the expectation of member states rather than the normal way of doing usual business in delivering simple activities, innovating new methods of delivery the program and new policy focus agenda.  

  • The Conceptual Framework of the Capacity Building Program

    The Context

    The underlying objective of the capacity building program is to enhance human and institutional capabilities for good economic governance and address the emerging regional issues including the drought resilience.  A common understanding of what is meant by capacity, governance and institution is a sine qua non for the success of this program.   The program will be based on IGAD- ISAP document and recent IDDRSI Strategy. 

    The Paris declaration for Aid Effectiveness urges developing countries to make capacity development a key goal of their national development strategies. Donors understand that capacity cannot be imported as a turnkey operation. Instead, it must be developed from within, with donors and their experts acting as catalysts, facilitators, and brokers of knowledge and technique. Despite widespread agreement on these general principles, the results of efforts to develop capacity have persistently fallen short of expectations (OECD 2005; OECD 2006; World Bank 2007). Why? 

    The problem begins with a lack of consensus about the operational definition of capacity development and the results that can be expected from capacity development efforts. Most official definitions of capacity and capacity development are very broad.

    This lack of clarity makes it extremely difficult to evaluate the outcome of such work and to understand its impact (see, for example, World Bank 2005).  

    Most critical reviews of capacity development practice also find that many programs are poorly grounded in theory and lack consistent conceptual frameworks (see, for example, Taylor and Clarke 2008). The approaches to capacity development are many, and most are characterized by vague and inconsistent concepts and lack of a common terminology. The processes by which change occurs are not well understood, the importance of strategy is often overlooked, and the links between outcomes of capacity development efforts and development goals are poorly articulated (World Bank 2006).  

    The World Bank Institute (2006) has summed up the problem in practical terms: 

    “Most efforts at capacity development remain fragmented, making it difficult to capture cross-sectoral influences and to draw general conclusions. Many capacity development activities are not founded on rigorous needs assessments and do not include appropriate sequencing of measures aimed at institutional or organizational change and individual skill building. What is needed is a more comprehensive and sustained approach, one that builds a permanent capacity to manage sectors and deliver services. Finally, better tools are needed to track, monitor, and evaluate capacity development efforts”.

    UNDP defines capacity as “the ability of individuals and organizations or organizational units to perform functions effectively, efficiently and sustainably” (UNDP, 1997:11).  An alternative definition provided by the World Bank, defines capacity as “the ability to access and use knowledge to perform a task” (World Bank, 2002).  Deng and Kategile (2004) use a combination of the above two definitions in defining capacity as “the ability of individuals or organizations to acquire knowledge and skills and to use them to perform a specific task effectively, efficiently and sustainably.”

    For instance, “Capacity’ is understood as the ability of people, organizations and society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully. … ‘Capacity development’ is understood as the process whereby people, organizations and society as a whole unleash, strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity over time”  (OECD, 2006).

    Ability and performance are some of the key features of capacity that are of special interest to this program.  For instance, selection of participants envisaged to benefit from this program must include ability to learn (i.e. Acquire new knowledge and skills) as one of the critical criteria. Moreover, to acquire knowledge is more critical than to “access” knowledge. A learner can access information but not knowledge; for knowledge is earned (i.e. learnt or acquired). Similarly, a person may have access to knowledge, but without necessarily learning much to enable her/him to undertake a given task that requires a certain level of know-how in order to ensure effectiveness and efficiency. Although interrelated and sometimes used interchangeably, skills and knowledge are quite different. For the purpose of this document, skill is the “art of doing” things as opposed to “know how to do” things, which is knowledge. Two individuals may have the same knowledge, but have different skills. Learning is then a process of acquiring asset, such as knowledge.

    Performance is the second characteristic of capacity, which is of particular interest especially as it relates to the quality of economic governance – in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability. The quest for quality (in this case, good economic governance) is the ultimate objective in the performance of any task by an individual, organization and/or state. But in order to ensure quality performance, a task to be performed must clearly be defined. For example, in the case of drought resilience program the core functions/tasks are (a) advocate for multi-sectoral approaches with regional perspective require strong political buy-in and deep analysis of the compatible methods to deliver the capacity.

    These are the core functions that call for the capacity of member states to be enhanced their commitment, so as to ensure that it achieves the key objectives stated in the resilience steerage in Interim Period.

    The effectiveness of the program would be judged, among other things, on how the overriding objectives of the three pillars of ISAP and resilience have been addressed.

    On governance, a comprehensive definition of governance is given by Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi (KKM) as: 

    “The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes (1) the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced, (2) the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies, and (3) the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them” .     

    Turning to institution, reminiscent of “capacity,” there are numerous definitions of institutions.  However, for the purpose of this document, only five definitions have been identified.  The definitions that were identified include the following:

    • “Working rules of collective action in restraint, liberation, and expansion of individual action” John R. Commons: (1959 : 73). 
    •  “Rules and conventions of society that facilitate coordination among people regarding their behavior” . Vernon Ruttan and Yujiro Hayami (1984).

  • Drought Resilience Framework

    Drought Resilience Framework

 

Attachments:
FileDescriptionFile size
Download this file (Development Thinking and Structural Transformation.pdf)Development Thinking and Structural TransformationDevelopment Thinking and Structural Transformation1332 kB
Download this file (Executive Summary.pdf)Executive SummaryExecutive Summary326 kB
Download this file (Karamoja.pdf)KaramojaKaramoja1137 kB
Download this file (Parliamentary Presentation.pdf)Parliamentary PresentationParliamentary Presentation1121 kB
Download this file (Toward An Inclusive Analytical Framework to Resilience.pdf)Toward An Inclusive Analytical Framework to ResilienceToward An Inclusive Analytical Framework to Resilience1350 kB

Development partners in the Horn of Africa region are working closely with IGAD as it builds its capacity for expanding roles on drought resilience. A donor working group on Technical Assistance to IGAD for Resilience met in August and October, 2012 and in May, 2013 to promote coordination and effectiveness. This group has agreed to align all activities with IGAD’s Institutional Strengthening Action Plan (ISAP), which has been supported since 2010 by a group of Nordic countries coordinated by Denmark. The group is also linked to the IGAD Partners’ Forum (IPF), which was created in 1997 as part of the formal governance structure of IGAD. IGAD’s agenda on drought resilience and sustainability is closely linked to the Global Alliance for Action on Drought Resilience and Growth formed in 2012 to align the headquarters of a wide range of international development partners around new ways of bringing together humanitarian and development assistance to build sustainable resilience.

  • ISAP

    Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland channel support through a Joint Financing Agreement (JFA). The ISAP is focused on strengthening the capacity and performance of the IGAD Secretariat, as well as its linkages with member states, development partners, and external stakeholders. As it starts its second phase (2012-2014) ISAP is providing an organizing framework for tracking the full range of activities of the IGAD Secretariat, to which the other donors are aligning their technical assistance contributions, both within and outside of the JFA. The ISAP is also supporting improved mechanisms such as a common annual workplans, standard reporting formats, and joint audits to pull all management procedures into IGAD’s own systems operating according to international standards, rather than respond to separate procedures required by different donor agencies. 

     Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland channel support through a Joint Financing Agreement (JFA). The ISAP is focused on strengthening the capacity and performance of the IGAD Secretariat, as well as its linkages with member states, development partners, and external stakeholders. As it starts its second phase (2012-2014) ISAP is providing an organizing framework for tracking the full range of activities of the IGAD Secretariat, to which the other donors are aligning their technical assistance contributions, both within and outside of the JFA. The ISAP is also supporting improved mechanisms such as a common annual workplans, standard reporting formats, and joint audits to pull all management procedures into IGAD’s own systems operating according to international standards, rather than respond to separate procedures required by different donor agencies.

  • Finland

     In addition to its participation in the JFA for the ISAP and funding the IGAD Facilitation Office in the Sudan, Finland supports the institutional strengthening through 1) the establishment of a Project Preparation and Management Unit (PPMU), 2) both long-term and short-term Technical Assistance (TA) 3) funding support for three Regional Experts based at IGAD Secretariat.  Support has focused on procedures, guidelines, training manuals and tools, while providing training for the staff of IGAD Secretariat, specialized institutions and regional projects.  
  • Denmark

    In addition to its participation in the JFA for the ISAP, Denmark supports a productive capacities and resilience programme under the umbrella of IDDRSI with three components: 1) support through IGAD to facilitate a civil society facility and to fund research grants on dryland resilience and food security, 2) support to Somalia through the FAO, and 3) support to Ethiopia with the World Bank.
  • BMZ (GIZ)

    Germany is providing advisory services through GIZ staff seconded to the Secretariat and support through local grants for training, consultancies, consultative meetings, equipment, and materials. Its advisory services focuses on strengthening the Platform Coordination Unit (PCU) and are organized in three areas: a) regional programming to improve individual skills and institutional capacity in managing IGAD’s regional project portolio.; b) regional knowledge management (including M&E-System and GIS), and c) IGAD’s internal capacity development as well as IGAD’s capacity development services to Member States. GIZ has set up a unit in the Secretariat to manage the funding for these activities. German Cooperation is also engaged through GIZ and KfW in bilateral cooperation for Drought Resilience in different IGAD Member States.
  • USAID

    USAID’s regional mission is providing resources directly to the IGAD Secretariat to build up its professional staff, both for the resilience platform and for general management functions including procurement and financial management, and to support program activities in knowledge management and communication. USAID is also supporting a Technical Consortium of the CGIAR international research centers led by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the FAO investment Center in Rome. This group is providing technical support and backstopping to IGAD and the member states as they the refine the CPPs and the RPPs, and is supporting the development of an M&E system. Support to AU-IBAR on animal disease standards is also linked to ICAPLD/IGAD. USAID’s missions in the Horn of Africa are expanding their support to resilience activities at the national and regional levels, within the common framework.
  • Europian Union

    EU is providing support to the IGAD Secretariat for its core mandate, including staff, staff training and equipment, to meet international standards (four-pillars: accounting, audit, internal control and procurement) that would allow IGAD to qualify for using its own procedures under joint management (Contribution Agreement). EU assists IGAD with regional integration, in partnership with the other regional organizations in the region. In the area of trade, EU supports animal disease surveillance through AU IBAR. EU provides support to the development of the IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) with core support and consultancies. Through FAO, EU seconds a Livestock Information and Pastoral Policy Advisor to the IGAD headquarters in Djibouti. In addition, EU is supporting IGAD’s activities in natural disasters, inland water resources management and biodiversity management, all of which contribute to the drought resilience agenda. In the area of peace, security and stability, EU is supporting IGAD in maritime security, political integration and human security.  Contact Sabina Petrecchia  ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ), Koen Duchateau ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
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  • Italian Development Cooperation

    Italy chairs the IGAD Partners’ Forum (IPF), which pulls together 27 countries and organizations at the ambassadorial, ministerial, and technical levels. The group is active, and meets two or three times a year. Italy is contributing funds to operationalize the IGAD regional CAADP compact, and to strengthen the Secretariat. Contact Fabio Melloni ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ), Michele Boario ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
  • Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)

    Within the framework of its new strategy for the Horn of Africa, Switzerland is planning to contribute in the areas of regionally shared surface water resources, food security and drought resilience. These activities will be linked to IGAD’s platform and other IGAD organs including the IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD). Contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Giacomo Solari ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ).
  • World Bank

     Within the framework developed by the IGAD platform, the World Bank is organizing a long-tern Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project through IGAD member states, initially Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda. The IGAD secretariat will be supported coordinate the implementation of the project and to perform regional tasks within this project and beyond. Contact Stephane Forman ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )
  • African Development Bank

    The AfDB has seconded a technical expert to the resilience platform, and is supporting the recruitment of technical staff and the procurement of equipment. The Bank is also supporting regional studies on water resources and livestock. In addition to the technical, human, and institutional support to IGAD, the AfDB will also support field programs on resilience in member states over the coming 15 years.
  • FAO

    The FAO is supporting the development of a regional IGAD CAADP compact.. With a technical advisor seconded to IGAD Drought Resilience Initiative based in Djibouti, the organization provides technical support to the resilience platform and the Sheik Technical Veterinary School in Somaliland. The FAO is also supporting data collection on cross-border trade, and technical cooperation programs on livestock and fisheries value chains and on rangeland rehabilitation. The Investment Centre in Rome is a key partner in the Technical Consortium cited above. FAO is providing support to monitoring and evaluation, as well as knowledge sharing and learning, including the organization of a Knowledge ShareFair and creating linkages with the Sahel/CILSS.  FAO is also providing technical support to IGAD, its member states, and Development Partners to develop regional investment programmes such as the World-Bank financed Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project.
  • UNDP

    The UNDP is providing technical experts to help develop and operationalize the IGAD platform, to enhance the technical and functional capacity of IGAD to facilitate resilience interventions, and to strengthen information and knowledge management systems. Contact Hodan Haji-Mohamud.
  • World Food Program

    In 2010, the WFP was the first UN Agency to sign a Memorandum of Understanding with IGAD. Support is being provided in the areas of early warning, disaster risk management, and nutrition. The MOU is being updated to align with IGAD’s Drought Resilience and Sustainability Strategy. The WFP will be sharing regional vulnerability maps and regional DRR initiatives, among other services, with IGAD and IGAD specialized institutions in line with the provisions in the updated MOU.

Strategic Objective: Enhance generation, access, use and integrated management of research, knowledge, technology and innovations in the IGAD region

Strategies:

  • Support and enhance networks and institutions of excellence in research, knowledge, science, technology and innovations relevant to IGAD region.
  • Support research and capacity building in priority themes including livelihoods, products development, food and nutrition security, water security, climate change resilience, renewable energy security, bio-security and bio-safety, trans-boundary diseases and global health, biotechnology, African biodiversity and natural products industry, ecosystem health and restoration, green technology, gender, indigenous knowledge and technology for climate risk management, and applied ICT and knowledge management.
  • Strengthen relevant global, regional and national research and higher education networks, collaborations and integration.
  • Enhance ASALs-based commodity research, knowledge management, information sharing, communication, technical/ extension support, advisory services and training; 
  • Support and enhance policy research and policies that support research, knowledge management and technology transfer at all levels.