Recurrent droughts and unpredictable rainfall patterns are characteristic features of the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) that comprise the Horn of Africa (HOA), where the 8 Member countries of IGAD (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) are located. The droughts have been increasing in severity and frequency over the years and their impacts are exacerbated by advancing desertification, land degradation, global warming and climate change phenomena. These harsh and worsening ecological circumstances have created conditions of chronic vulnerability in the HOA, with persistent food insecurity, widespread economic hardships and untold human suffering, affecting the pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities that inhabit the ASALs. [...More...]